What Is Isokinetic Exercise? Isokinetics in Best Testing and Rehabilit,Isokinetic Strengthening Exercises(2021),

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What Is Isokinetic Exercise?

Isokinetic exercise, or accommodating variable-resistance exercise, is performed at a fixed speed with the resistance matching the muscle force at that speed of movement.140 As the muscle force input changes, the resistance changes because the speed remains constant.

Application of the athlete’s own muscular resistance is met with a proportional amount of resistance throughout a range of motion. Isokinetic machines may be set to offer concentric-concentric, concentric-eccentric, or eccentric-eccentric actions at various velocities . Chapter 25 provides an in-depth discussion of isokinetics.

Isokinetic exercise

 

Application of Isokinetics in Testing and Rehabilitation:

•The concept of isokinetic exercise was developed by James Perrine in the late 1960s.

•Isokinetics refers to exercise that is performed at a fixed velocity with an accommodating resistance. Accommodating resistance means that the resistance varies to exactly match the force applied by the athlete at every point in the ROM; thus, the muscle is loaded to its maximum capability at every point throughout the ROM.

•Isokinetic exercise contains three major components: acceleration, deceleration, and load range.

Isokinetic Testing

•Isokinetic assessment allows the clinician to objectively assess muscular performance in a way that is both safe and reliable.

•Contraindications to testing and using isokinetics include soft tissue–healing constraints, pain, limited ROM, effusion, joint instability, acute strains and sprains, and occasionally, subacute conditions.

•A standard test protocol should be used to enhance the reliability of testing.

•Isokinetic testing allows a variety of testing protocols ranging from power to endurance tests. Use of velocity spectrum testing is recommended so that the test will assess the muscle’s capabilities at different speeds, thus simulating various activities.

•Isokinetic testing provides numerous objective parameters that can be used to evaluate and analyze an athlete’s performance.

•Differentiation of the balance in agonist and antagonist muscular strength with manual techniques is not as reliable as using an isokinetic apparatus.

•With isokinetic testing, assessment of the strength of an extremity relative to the contralateral side forms the basis for interpretation of the data.

•It is necessary to perform isolated testing of specific muscle groups usually affected by certain pathologic changes. If the component parts of the kinetic chain are not measured, the weak link will not be identified or adequately rehabilitated, which will affect the entire chain.

Closed Kinetic Chain Versus Open Kinetic Chain Isokinetic Assessment and Rehabilitation:

•The benefits of using CKC exercises in rehabilitation have been described quite extensively; however, few scientifically based prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental clinical trials document the efficacy of CKC exercises.

•The primary purpose of performing OKC isokinetic assessment is the need to test specific muscle groups of a pathologic joint in isolation. Although the muscles do not work in an isolated fashion, a deficit, or “weak link,” in a kinetic chain will never be identified unless specific isolated OKC isokinetic testing is performed.

•Evidence suggests a correlation between OKC isokinetic testing and CKC functional performance, as well as sport-specific functional tests.

Use of Isokinetics in Upper Extremity Testing and Rehabilitation:

•The benefits of using CKC exercises in rehabilitation have been described quite extensively; however, few scientifically based prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental clinical trials document the efficacy of CKC exercises.

•The primary purpose of performing OKC isokinetic assessment is the need to test specific muscle groups of a pathologic joint in isolation. Although the muscles do not work in an isolated fashion, a deficit, or “weak link,” in a kinetic chain will never be identified unless specific isolated OKC isokinetic testing is performed.

•Evidence suggests a correlation between OKC isokinetic testing and CKC functional performance, as well as sport-specific functional tests.

Use of Isokinetics in Upper Extremity Testing and Rehabilitation
•One rationale for using isokinetics in upper extremity testing and rehabilitation is that the upper extremities function almost exclusively in an OKC format.

•Initial testing and rehabilitation of the shoulder should be done in the modified base position before progressing to the 90° abducted position.

•The 90° abducted position for isokinetic strength assessment is more specific for assessing the muscular functions required for overhead activities.

•Research has identified the IR and ER movement patterns as the preferred testing patterns in athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy.

•Some athletic populations have significantly greater IR than ER strength in the dominant arm, which produces significant changes in agonist-antagonist muscular balance.

•Alteration of the ER-to-IR ratio has been reported in athletes with glenohumeral joint instability and impingement.

•Eccentric testing in the upper extremity is clearly indicated on the basis of the prevalence of functionally specific eccentric work.

Use of Isokinetics in Rehabilitation Programs:

Isokinetic Exercise

•The athlete should progress from static isometric exercises to more dynamic exercises.

•Isometrics are performed at approximately every 20° through the ROM that is indicated. The rationale for 20° is the physiologic overflow that occurs with isometrics.Isokinetic exercises

•Performing isometric exercise around the painful arc during the rehabilitation process is an example of applying isometrics early in the rehabilitation process.

•It is recommended that isometrics be performed by using the rule of tens: 10-second contractions, 10-second rest, 10 repetitions, and so on.

•The 10-second contraction should be performed with a 2-second gradual buildup to the desired tension, which should be held for 6 seconds with gradual relaxation for 2 seconds. This technique can also result in a decrease in the pain that can result from a muscle contraction around an injured area.

•When an athlete progresses through a progressive resistive program trial, treatments can be used to determine whether the athlete is ready to advance to the next stage of an exercise progression continuum.

•Submaximal exercise can stimulate the slow-twitch muscle fibers and allow athletes to exercise at lower, pain-free intensities early in the rehabilitation process, with a progression to higher exercise intensities later in rehabilitation that preferentially stimulate the fast-twitch fibers.Isokinetic exercises

•Dynamic exercises begin with short-arc exercises and the ROM within symptom and soft tissue–healing constraints.

•Short-arc exercises are often started with submaximal isokinetics.

•With short-arc isokinetics, speeds ranging from 60 to 180°/sec are used.

•With short-arc isokinetic exercise, there is a physiologic overflow of approximately 30° through the ROM.

•The speed selected with isokinetic exercise is of vital importance in a VSRP. The speeds in the protocol are designed so that the athlete will exercise 30°/sec through the velocity spectrum. The reason for using an interval of 30°/sec in the velocity spectrum is the physiologic overflow with respect to speed that has been identified with isokinetic research.

•With full ROM exercises, straight planar movements are used initially to protect the injured plane of movement. Faster contractile velocities are also used from 180°/sec up to the maximum capabilities of the isokinetic dynamometer.

•Despite the lack of research on eccentric exercise training, particularly in athletes, specific application of eccentric exercise programs to the posterior rotator cuff, quadriceps, and other important muscle-tendon units that must perform extensive eccentric work may be indicated.

Isokinetic Strengthening Exercises:

Isokinetic Knee Exercises:

Isokinetic Exercises

Isokinetic exercises are resistance-based exercises that involve the use of special exercise equipment, which provides variable resistance to a movement and allows muscles to contract at constant speeds. This ensures, that no matter how much effort is exerted, the exercise movements take place at a constant speed. Isokinetic exercises are how we identify, treat and document physical impairments that cause functional limitations.Isokinetic exercises

Isokinetic exercises test and improve muscular strength and endurance, especially after an injury. Isokinetic exercises allow patients to achieve the highest degree of muscle contraction while also promoting free range of movement of their limbs. The main benefits of isokentic exercises are:Isokinetic exercises

  1. Muscles gain strength evenly all through the range of movement.
  2. Range of motion is greatly improved.
  3. It is the fastest way to increase muscle strength.
  4. Isokinetic exercises promote the release of endorphins, which will help people feel rejuvenated and energetic instead of feeling fatigued.
  5. Because the amount of resistance can be controlled, it is possible to set the level so that the body is challenged but not in danger of straining or pulling the muscles. The movements help to promote changes in the tension ratio between muscles and tendons, which helps to promote strengthening as well as expansion.

 

 

 

 

 


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